D.P. Dhar, another great confidant of Gandhi and India`s chief negotiator, also seemed to support Haksar`s core spirit. In his telegram to Haksar in March 1972, Dhar said: “The colony (Simla) will not be between the victor and the vanquished, because such a colony has given rise to new conflicts and more violent conflicts in history. An agreement on the contrary… should also appear as the end of a chapter of criticism between two alienated brothers.┬áBut we now also know that Dhar was less enthusiastic about the prospect of change in Pakistan than in ensuring that India was seen as a credible attempt to maintain peace. Most importantly, he wanted India to make obvious profits during the negotiation process. For Dhar, without a solution to the Kashmir issue, “there could be no hope for lasting peace in the subcontinent.” Six months after the liberation of Bangladesh, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and former Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto met on 2 July 1972 in Shimla to sign an agreement that provides a framework for the reciprocal settlement of their differences. Pakistan ratified the Simla Agreement on 15 July 1972 and India was ratified on 3 August of the same year, effective 4 August 1972. The Simla Agreement ensured the withdrawal of troops from territories occupied by both sides during the war, with the exception of Kashmir. Over the next two years, all prisoners of war had returned home. The agreement emphasizes respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of the other. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and hostile propaganda.

Shimla Agreement: July 2, 1972Shimla: What is it? The Shimla Agreement was signed on 2 July 1972 by Indira Gandhi, then Indian Prime Minister, and by Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after the 1971 India-Pakistan War that liberated East Pakistan and led to the creation of Bangladesh. Among them, India and Pakistan have decided to abandon the conflict of the past and focus on building lasting friendship, peace and cooperation between them. The Shimla Agreement: Key Principles The Shimla Agreement contains a series of principles agreed by both India and Pakistan, which emphasize respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, sovereign equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of the other, respect for political independence and unity of the other, and disregard for hostile propaganda. The principles of the Shimla Agreement are:- Mutual commitment to peacefully resolve all issues through direct bilateral approaches.- Build the basis of a cooperative relationship with an emphasis on contacts.- Maintain the inviolability of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. Shimla agreement: main features 1. India and Pakistan have decided to put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have weighed on their relations in the past and to commit to a friendly and harmonious relationship to establish lasting peace in the subcontinent. 2. Both India and Pakistan agreed that relations between the two countries were governed by the principles of the United Nations Charter.

3. The two countries have decided to settle their differences by peaceful means, bilateral means or other means which they have agreed to. 4. Both India and Pakistan agreed to respect the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir, without undermining the recognized position of both sides.